短文改错十大考点

关键词:高考英语 短文改错 十大考点

2018-04-16 蒋小青 《教学考试》高考英语5(适用于2016届高三复习)

      考点 1:名词的数与格

  1.在 several, few, many, one of, a couple of, three,one and a half, a large number of, scores of, dozens of 等词语后,或虽没有这些词但语境提示我们,本应接复数可数名词的,但文中却用了单数。如:

  [2015·全国新课标卷Ⅱ] One day,little Tony went to a shopping center with his parent....his parents were missing.(parent → parents,由下文的 parents 可知,要改成复数)

  [2014·全国新课标卷Ⅱ] For example, we can do reading for one and a half hour and...(hour → hours)

  2.像 advice, fun, homework, information, news,progress, equipment, furniture, baggage, luggage, jewellery, clothing 等不可数名词是没有复数形式的,但在文中却误用了复数。如:

  [2015·全国新课标卷Ⅰ] The airs we breathe in is getting dirtier and dirtier.(airs → air,因 air 是不可数名词,没有复数形式)

  3.本应用名词所有格的,但文中却没有用。如:

  [2011·课程标准卷] When I finally arrived at my friend he lent me lots of clothes.(my friend → my friend’s)

  考点 2:介词

  1.常用介词的用法。如:

  [2015·全国新课标卷Ⅱ] Tony saw a toy on a shop window.(on → in,根据常识,玩具应在橱窗里面)

  2.固定词组中的介词误用。如:

  [2015·全国新课标卷Ⅰ] Unfortunately,on the development of industrialization,the environment has been polluted.(on → with,with the development of 意为“随着……的发展”)

  [2014·全国新课标卷Ⅰ] ...and with the help by our father, my sister and I planted some cherry tomatoes...(by → of,with the help of 意为“在……的帮助下”)

  3.固定词组中的介词漏用。如:

  [2014·全国新课标卷Ⅱ] We can lie on the grass for a rest,or sit by the lake listening music.(listening 后加 to,listen to“听”)

  考点 3:谓语动词(被动语态、时态一致、主谓一致)

  1.主动语态,多用 be,成为被动语态。如:

  [2015·全国新课标卷Ⅰ] Lots of studies have been shown that global warming has already become a very serious problem.(去掉 shown 前的 been,因“研究”与“表明”之间是主动关系)

  2.上下文中的谓语动词都是过去时,突然出现一个现在时。如:

  [2013·全国新课标卷Ⅰ] She used to hold me...I was only four when she passes away.(passes → passed)

  3.上下文中的谓语动词都是过去时,突然出现一个现在时。如:

  [2015·全国新课标卷Ⅰ] When I was a child,I hoped to live in the city. I think I would be happy there.(think → thought,指作者小时候想,应与前句时态一致)

  此外,无论是谓语动词还是非谓语动词,都要注意在平行结构中,动词形式的一致性,即“平行一致”。如,在 A and B 或 A, B and C 中,A, B,C 的形式要一致。如:

  [2015·全国新课标卷Ⅱ] A woman saw him crying and telling him to wait outside...(telling → told,与前面的 saw 是并列谓语,用 told)

  4.主谓不一致。如:

  [2014·全国新课标卷Ⅱ]My dream school look like a big garden.(look → looks,主语是“My dream school”)

  注意:主谓之间被介词短语或定语从句等隔开了,要注意找准主语。如:

  Li Ming,together with his parents,have gone abroad.(have → has,主语是 Li Ming,主谓之间被介词短语分开了。注意:“with sb.”或“together with sb.”等介词短语是不能作主语的)

  [2011·课程标准卷] ...the only clothes I had was those I had on.(was → were,主语是“the only clothes”,主谓之间被定语从句“I had”分开了)

  考点 4:指代一致

  1.上下文的人称不一致。如:

  [2015·全国新课标卷Ⅰ] We must find ways to protect your environment. If we fail to do so, we’ll live to regret it.(your → our /the,前后都是第一人称 we)

  [2011·全国卷Ⅱ] Thank you very much for showing them around your city and providing us with the wonderful meals.(them → us)

  2.上下文的单复数不一致。如:

  [2014·全国大纲卷] ...both of them have similar ideas...Otherwise, it is impossible for him to help each other and to make their friendship last long.(him → them)

  3.上下文的性别不一致。如:

  [2010·全国卷Ⅱ] Before her leaving, I prepared a gift to show my best wishes to him. She said...(him → her)

  4.人称代词格的误用。如:

  [2007·宁夏卷] Li Ming’s parents invited I to spend two wonderful weeks in Qingdao with them...(I → me)

  5.人称代词、反身代词、疑问代词等的错用。如:

  [2013·全国新课标卷Ⅰ] He had a deep voice,which set himself apart from others...(从句主语 which 是指“the voice”,这种声音使“他”与别人区分开, 故改himself 为 him)

  6.物主代词的漏用。如:

  [2015·全国新课标卷Ⅱ] Tony saw parents.(saw 后面加 his,指 Tony 的父母)

  考点 5:冠词

  1.基本用法:单数可数名词前,表示“一个”时,要用 a 或 an;表示特指时,用 the。如:

  [2015·全国新课标卷Ⅱ] ...walked into the shop...A woman saw him crying and told him to wait outside a shop.(a → the,特指上文提到的那家商店)

  [2012·全国卷Ⅱ] Many countries in the world find they don’t have enough water. To deal with a problem,I think,we should...(a → the,特指上文提到缺少“这个”问题)

  2.固定短语中不要多用或少用冠词。如:

  [2015·全国新课标卷Ⅰ] Now I am living in a city,but I miss my home in countryside.(在 countryside前加 the,表示“在农村”习惯上说 in the countryside)

  [2014·全国新课标卷Ⅰ] As result, the plants are growing everywhere.(As result → As a result)

  [2013·全国新课标卷Ⅰ] In a fact, he even scared my classmates away...(In a fact → In fact)

  3.混用:a,an 与the 之间的混用。如:

  [2013·全国大纲卷] So when I have the problem,I will turn to her for help.(the → a) 考点 6:连词

  1.although/though/while 不 与 but 连 用; since /as/because 不与 so 连用。如:

  [2014·全国新课标卷Ⅰ] Although we allow tomato plants to grow in the same place year after year, but we have never had any disease...(去掉 but 或改为 yet)

  2.and 与 but 混用。这是考得最多的微考点。如:

  [2014·全国大纲卷] The more friends we have,the more we can learn from one another, but the more pleasure we can share together.(but →and,前后没有转折关系)

  3.and 与 or

  [2015·全国新课标卷Ⅰ] There the air is clean or the mountains are green.(or → and,因“空气新鲜”与“山绿”是并列关系,而非选择关系)

  4.so 与 or

  [2013·四川卷] We were warned not to cheat again so she would need to see our parents.(so“因此”→ or“否则” )

  5.after 与 before

  [2013·陕西卷] Before waiting for about half an hour,I was beginning to get impatient.(Before → After 逻辑)

  6.which 与 what

  [2013·辽宁卷] That is which other teachers say.(which → what“所……的” )

  7.多用或少用连词。如:

  [2013·辽宁卷]With little sleep and hardly any break,so he works from morning till night.(去掉 so)

  8.错用 that 引导非限制性定语从句。如:

  [2013·全国新课标卷Ⅱ] Having tea in the late afternoon provides a bridge between lunch and dinner, that might not be served until 8 o’clock at night.(that → which)

  9.其他从句引导词的误用。如:

  [2015· 全 国 新 课 标 卷 Ⅱ] ...he turned around and found where his parents were missing.(where → that 或者去掉 where,宾语从句的结构与意思完整,用 that 引导或省略 that)

  考点7:非谓语动词

  1.作主语或宾语不能用动词原形,通常改为 ing 形式或不定式。因在短文改错中,只能改一个词,如果主语是原形,就只能改为 ing 形式了。如:

  [2013·全国新课标卷Ⅱ] Have tea in the late afternoon provides a bridge between lunch and dinner...(Have → Having) 2. 熟记其后只能接 ing 或只能接 to do 作宾语的动词。如:

  [2010·全国卷Ⅱ] Last year, she decided study abroad.(study → to study,因 decide to do sth.)

  3.介词后要用动词的 ing 形式。注意区分 to 是介词还是不定式符号。如:

  [2015·全国新课标卷Ⅱ] After looks at the toy for some time, he turned around...(looks →looking,介词 after 后面接动名词)

  [2013·全国大纲卷] He isn’t good at talk but he gets on well with other people.(talk → talking,在介词 at 后)

  4.一些固定短语或句式中的非谓语动词形式。如:

  [2013·全国新课标卷Ⅰ] She used to holding me on her knees...(holding → hold,因 used to do sth.)

  [2014·全国大纲卷] ...make their friendship to last long.(to last → last,因 make sb. do sth.)

  5.根据非谓语动词与其逻辑主语的关系来确定用 -ing形式还是用 -ed 形式。如:

  [2014·陕西卷] We sat by the fire, have our barbecue.(have → having,因 we 与 have 是主动关系)

  [2013· 陕 西 卷] Felt hungry, we built a fire by the lake...(Felt → Feeling,因 we 与 feel 是主动关系)

  6.别混淆谓语动词与非谓语动词。如:

  [2013·四川卷] ...but I tried hard to do it. Suddenly Mary,my best friend, asking me to let her copy my answers.(去掉同位语“my best friend”,显然,主语是 Mary,谓语是 ask,由前句谓语动词的时态可知, 用一般过去时,故改 asking 为 asked)

  考点8:词类的用法

  1.作定语、表语、补语, 用形容词,但却误用了副词或名词。如:

  [2015·全国新课标卷Ⅰ] ...global warming has already become a very seriously problem.(seriously → serious,作 problem 的定语)

  [2014·全国新课标卷Ⅰ] We are growing wonderfully tomatoes at no cost!(wonderfully → wonderful,作tomatoes 的定语)

  [2014·全国新课标卷Ⅰ]The fruits are small in size,but juicy and taste.(taste → tasty,作表语)

  [2013·四川卷] I found the test difficulty, but I tried hard to do it.(difficulty → difficult,作补语)

  2.作状语,修饰动词、形容词、全句,用副词。如: 

    [2015·全国新课标卷Ⅱ] Dad and I were terrible worried.(terrible → terribly,修饰形容词用副词)

  [2013·全国新课标卷Ⅱ] Interesting, it had a connection with the British porcelain(瓷器) industry.(Interesting →Interestingly,修饰全句)

  3.作主语、宾语, 用名词。如:

  [2013·辽宁卷]He has ruined his healthy.(healthy →health,作 ruined 的宾语)

  [2013·全国新课标卷Ⅱ] This made for the grow in the porcelain industry.(grow → growth,作介词 for 的宾语)

  4. -ed 与 -ing 形容词的用法区别: -ing 表示“令人……的(多为事) ”; -ed 表示“(人) 感到……的”。如:

  [2013·浙江卷]I am awfully tiring...(tiring → tired,因我感到累)

  [2010·课程标准卷] My friend Nick told me a story about his experience back in the U.S., which was very interested. (interested→ interesting,指他的故事是“令人有趣的”)

  考点9:常用词辨析

  只考 here 与 there, some 与 any, ago 与 before, many与 much, very much 与 very 或 much, beside 与 besides,ever 与 never, either 与 neither, used to do sth. 与 be used to(doing) sth. 等十分常见的词语之间的辨析。千万别遇到近义词就辨析,步入复习的歧途。如:

  [2015·全国新课标卷Ⅰ] Much rare animals are dying out.(Much → Many,修饰复数可数名词 animals 要用many)

  [2014·全国新课标卷Ⅱ] We don’t need to do so many homework.(many → much,修饰不可数名词 homework,用much)

  [2014·全国新课标卷Ⅰ] The fruits are small...There are so much that we often share them with our neighbors.(much → many,替代可数名词 fruits, 用 many)

  [2015·全国新课标卷Ⅱ] He liked it so very much that he quickly walked into the shop.(去掉 so 后的 very,这是“so...that...”结构)

  [2014·全国新课标卷Ⅰ]Nearly five years before,...my sister and I planted some cherry tomatoes...(before →ago,相对说话时多久以前,用 ago;相对过去的某个时间或动作在多久之前才用 before)

  [2014·辽宁卷] Beside, Cleo tends to bark an average of six hours a day.(Beside → Besides,因 beside 是介词,意为“在……的旁边”;而 besides 作介词时,意为“除……之外”,作副词时, 意为“此外,而且”。注意,凡是介词,其后一定有宾语。而此处没有宾语,一定是用副词)

  考点 10:其他

  本考点是指不便归于某一语法项目的考点。包括情态动词的用法特点、过去式和过去分词的拼写错误、短语动词中的介词或副词错误、习惯修饰语错误等。如:

  [2015·全国新课标卷Ⅰ] We must found ways to protect our environment.(found → find,在情态动词 must 后应用动词原形)

  [2015·全国新课标卷Ⅱ] Tony was scared and begun to cry.(begun → began,因 begin 的过去式是 began,拼写错误)

  全国卷中出现的还有:

  [2014·全国新课标卷Ⅰ] somewhere → everywhere

  [2014·全国新课标卷Ⅱ] They → There(there be 句型写成 they be)

  [2014·全国大纲卷] should able to → should be able to(able 是形容词, 不能作谓语,故应加 be)

  [2013·全国新课标卷Ⅰ]remember...much→ remember...well /clearly(习惯修饰语)

  [2013·全国新课标卷Ⅱ]was drank → was drunk(过去分词拼写错误)

  [2013·全国大纲卷] stand → stand up(漏掉小品词)

  另外,多用 be 或少用 be 是写作中常见的错误,因此短文改错中也有可能出现。记住:作谓语的是行为动词时,如果不是进行时态或被动语态,不用 be;如果句中谓语没有动词,但汉语意思又完整了时,要用 be。如:

  [2014·陕西卷]Suddenly the arrows were flying down at us from the sky—they were looked like rain!(因 looked like 中 looked 本身就是系动词, were 是多余的, 应当去掉)

  [2014·全国大纲卷] So real friendship should able to stand all sorts of tests.(因情态动词后要接动词原形,而其后的 able 是形容词, 虽然意义完整, 但还是要在 able 前加be)

  又如,I very busy.(我很忙) 虽然汉语意思完整,但句中 busy 是形容词,无动词,要在 I 后加 am。 At that time, we in the classroom.(那时,我们在教室里) 虽然汉语意思完整,但句中无动词,要加 be,即在 we 后加were。


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