记叙类阅读理解夺分技巧

关键词:记叙文阅读理解 高考英语 夺分技巧

2018-04-04 崔北刚 王玉峰 《教学考试》高考英语2016第四辑

      英语记叙文以描写、 叙述为主,主要描写人物、事件、地点或过程。总体上来说阅读难度不算大,试题的设置主要集中在记叙文的六个要素上,即 what/ who/ when/ where/why/ how。

  记叙文有它一定的写作顺序。写作顺序要贯穿全文就需要一个线索, 可以以人物发展、事件发展、人物思想感情变化、时间顺序等为线索。分析线索有助于把握行文的思路和全文的结构。同时不能忽视插叙、倒叙等手法。

  以写人为主的记叙文往往是紧紧抓住该人物这条主线,考生要理清直接发生在该人物身上的事件和作者为了叙述需要而做的必要的背景介绍。在阅读以记事为主的记叙文时,一定要抓住主要事件的情节随时间和空间的变换是如何发展的,同时也要分清主要信息和次要信息。

  逸闻趣事类的文章往往是以日常生活中的事情入手,描述一些鲜为人知的事。幽默故事的幽默是其主要内容,要注意中西文化的差异性。选材多来源于日常生活,给人似曾相识之感,但随着故事的发展、展开、结束,会给人意外的感觉。

  记叙文的主题往往潜伏在字里行间,可采取略读和扫读的方法,快速抓住文中描写的主要内容,从整体上去把握文章的连贯性,进而大体上揣测出作者的写作意图及情感主线。

  记叙文命题以细节理解题为主,推理判断题为辅。常见题型有:事实判断题、词语理解题、数字推算、文章主题、中心大意、作者的意图和态度以及由叙述而得出的逻辑结论等。下面就从记叙文的命题类型谈谈记叙文阅读的解题策略。

  一、记叙文之细节理解题

  在每年阅读理解的试题命制中,细节理解题都占有相当大的比例。因为如果难度大的题目过多,则不利于大部分考生真实水平的发挥,所以每年都保留一定比例的表层次试题,而对表层次的考查主要是以细节理解题的形式体现出来的。记叙文中时间、地点、人物、事件、数字、定义、因果等是细节理解题命题的重点。设题形式有事实判断、wh- 问句、计算、排序、识图等。常见的题干有:

  All the following are true/ right/ false/ wrong except...?

  All the following are mentioned except...

  Which of the following is true/ right/ false/ wrong?

  What can we learn about Bath from the passage?

  How did the author finally get this TV set working again?

  The writer acted upon the store rules because        .

  The author’s mother told him to borrow a book in order to         .

  【应试策略】 运用略读和寻读相结合的方法, 将选项与原句进行比较。要考虑选项是否符合文章意思,程度上是否相符,是否太绝对。有时为了增加题目的难度,问题的表达常常不采用文章中的原话提问,而是采用同义词变换、句型变换等手段来表达文章的有关细节。因此,在选择答案前应首先理解题干,弄清问题所在。

  【考例】(节选自 2015·北京卷 A 篇,保留原题号)

  The Boy Made It!

  One Sunday,Nicholas,a teenager,went skiing at Sugarloaf Mountain in Maine.In the early afternoon,when he was planning to go 

home,a fierce snowstorm swept into the area.Unable to see far,he accidentally turned off the path. Before he knew it,Nicholas was 

lost,all alone! He didn’t have food,water,a phone,or other supplies. He was getting colder by the minute.

  Nicholas had no idea where he was. He tried not to panic. He thought about all of the survival shows he had watched on TV. It was 

time to put the tips he had learned to use.

  He decided to stop skiing. There was a better chance of someone finding him if he stayed put. The first thing he did was to find shelter form the freezing wind and snow. If he didn’t,his body temperature would get very low,which could quickly kill him.

  Using his skis, Nicholas built a snow cave. He gathered a huge mass of snow and dug out a hole in the middle. Then he piled branches on top of himself,like a blanket,to stay as warm as he could.

  56. What happened to Nicholas one Sunday afternoon?

  A. He got lost.              B. He broke his skis.

  C. He hurt his eyes.         D. He caught a cold.

  57. How did Nicholas keep himself warm?

  A. He found a shelter.

  B. He lighted some branches.

  C. He kept on skiing.

  D. He built a snow cave.

  【内容概要】 本文是一篇故事类记叙文,讲的是一个小男孩在暴风雪中迷路, 但他不畏艰难,利用在电视中学到的野外生存知识逃脱困境的故事。

  56. A 细节理解题。根据第一段第四句“Before he knew it,Nicholas was lost,all alone!”可知,Nicholas 迷路了。故选 A 项。

  57. D 细节理解题。根据第四段第一句“Nicholas built a snow cave”以及最后一句中表示目的的“to stay as warm as he could”可以看出 

Nicholas 保持温暖的方式是建了一个雪洞。故选 D 项。

  二、记叙文之主旨大意题

  主旨大意类试题是阅读理解中难度比较大的试题,属于深层次理解题。考生要学习识别文章中最基本、最具有概括力的信息(这种信息应能归纳和概括文中其他信息所具有的共性),要能够借助文章的结构来把握中心思想。此类试题主要有理解文章大意和最佳标题题两种。常见的题干有:

  1.考查文章中心大意的常见题干:

  Which is the topic of this passage?

  What is the main theme of the story?

  The passage mainly deals with/ is primarily concerned with             ?

  The main/ general idea of this passage is            .

  The writer of the story wants to tell us that              .

  The main purpose of this article is to show that                .

  The passage is mainly about            .

    The passage mainly focuses on            .

  Which of the following can best summarize this passage?

  What’s the subject discussed in this passage?

  What does this passage mainly deal with?

  2.考查文章最佳标题的常见题干:

  Which is the best title of this passage?

  The title that best expresses the idea of the passage is             .

  The most suitable title for this passage is           .

  What would be the most suitable title for the text?

  【解题策略】 段落的中心思想常常由主题句(topic sentence) 来表达,主题句常常出现在段首或段尾处,有时也在段落中间。同样,一篇文章的中心思想也常常在开始段或结尾段点出。命题重点主要集中在主题句、主题和标题上。解题时关键是要抓住文章的首尾段和每一段的首尾句。

  对于文章中心的归纳和标题的提炼要注意既不要以偏概全,又不能过于宽泛。同时还要注意标题有时用的是省略形式,比如用过去分词代替被动语态等。

  【考例】(2015·陕西卷 B 篇,保留原题号)

  When the dog named Judy spotted the first sheep in her life,she did what comes naturally.The four-year-old dog set off racing after the sheep across several fields and, being a city animal, lost both her sheep and her sense of direction. Then she ran along the edge of a cliff(悬 崖) and fell 100 feet, bouncing off a rock into the sea.

  Her owner Mike Holden panicked and called the coastguard of Cornwall,who turned up in seconds. Six volunteers slid down the cliff with the help of a rope but gave up all hope of finding her alive after a 90-minute search.

  Three days later,a hurricane hit the coast near Cornwall. Mr. Holden returned home from his holiday upset and convinced his pet was dead. He comforted himself with the thought she had died in the most beautiful part of the country.For the next two weeks the Holdens were heartbroken. Then, one day, the phone rang and Steve Tregear,the coastguard of Cornwall,asked Holden if he would like his dog back.

  A birdwatcher,armed with a telescope,found the pet sitting desperately on a rock.While he sounded the alarm,a student from Leeds climbed down the cliff to collect Judy.

  The dog had initially been knocked unconscious(失去知觉的 ) but had survived by drinking water from a fresh stream at the base of 

the cliff. She may have fed on the body of a sheep which had also fallen over the edge.“The dog was very thin and hungry,”Steve Tregear said,“It was a very lucky dog. She survived because of a plentiful supply of fresh water,” he added.

  It was,as Mr. Holden admitted,“a minor miracle(奇迹)”.

  53. Which of the following can be the best title for the text?

  A. Miracle of the Coastguard.

  B. Surviving a Hurricane.

  C. Dangers in the Wild

  D. Coming Back from the Dead.

  【内容概要】 文章介绍了一条叫 Judy 的狗在追赶一只羊的时候从悬崖上掉下去。主人努力寻找几个小时后无果,以为它已死就放弃了,结果几天后意外得到消息,狗还活着的故事。

  53. D 主旨大意题。根据文章的内容可知, 本文介绍的是一只狗掉到悬崖下死里逃生的经历, “Coming Back from the Dead”既醒目、点题,又概括性强。故选 D 项。

  三、记叙文之推理判断题

  推断性问题要求考生根据文章中的关键词、短语、结构等进行推断,不但要求掌握文章所表达的字面含义,还要掌握一定的逻辑判断能力及写作技巧知识,从文章表面推出更深层含义; 或要求考生通过阅读某段或几段内容,推断出一个结论,类似于主题性问题。命题形式主要包括下列五个动词:infer(推断),imply(暗示),suggest(暗示),conclude(做出结论)和 assume(假定,设想)。常见的题干有:

  It can be inferred from the passage that             .

  The author strongly suggests that             .

  It can be concluded from the passage that             .

  What do you think will happen when/ if...?

  At the end of this passage, the writer might continue to write             .

  The writer implies but not directly states that             .

  The passage is intended to             .

  The writer indicates that             .

  【解题策略】 考生要站在文章作者或文中人物的立场上,设身处地地考虑实际情景,并据此展开正确想象和推理,防止不依据关键词而凭空进行推断,这是许多考生存在的一个通病。 要注意不要与细节理解题混淆,细节理解题可以是文中原句的解释,而推理题则是文章的“弦外之音” 。

  【考例】 (2015·天津卷 C 篇,保留原题号)

  One day when I was 12,my mother gave me an order: I was to walk to the public library,and borrow at least one book for the summer. This was one more weapon for her to defeat my strange problem—inability to read.

  In the library,I found my way into the“Children’s Room.”I sat down on the floor and pulled a few books off the shelf at random. The cover of a book caught my eye. It presented a picture of a beagle. I had recently had a beagle,the first and only animal companion I ever had as a child. He was my secret sharer, but one morning, he was gone,given away to someone who had the space and the money to care for him. I never forgot my beagle.

  There on the book’s cover was a beagle which looked identical(相同的) to my dog. I ran my fingers over the picture of the dog on 

the cover. My eyes ran across the title,Amos, the Beagle with a Plan. Unknowingly, I had read the title. Without opening the book, I borrowed it from the library for the summer.

  Under the shade of a bush,I started to read about Amos. I read very,very slowly with difficulty.Though pages were turned slowly, I got the main idea of the story about a dog who,like mine,had been separated from his family and who finally found his way back home. That dog was my dog,and I was the little boy in the book. At the end of the story,my mind continued the final scene of reunion, on and on,until my own lost dog and I were,in my mind,running together.

  My mother’s call returned me to the real world. I suddenly realized something: I had read a book, and I had loved reading that 

book. Everyone knew I could not read. But I had read it. Books could be incredibly wonderful and I was going to read them.

  I never told my mother about my“miraculous”(奇迹般的)experience that summer,but she saw a slow but remarkable improvement in my classroom performance during the next year. And years later,she was proud that her son had read thousands of books,was awarded a PhD in literature,and authored his own books,articles, poetry and fiction. The power of the words has held.

  48. Why could the author managed to read the book through?

  A. He was forced by his mother to read it.

  B. He identified with the story in the book.

  C. The book told the story of his pet dog.

  D. The happy ending of the story attracted him.

  49. What can be inferred from the last paragraph?

  A. The author has become a successful writer.

  B. The author’s mother read the same book.

  C. The author’s mother rewarded him with books.

  D. The author has had happy summers ever since.

  【内容概要】 文章讲述了作者从一名阅读困难的孩子到最终成为一名成功的作家的故事,告诉我们书本的魅力。要特别关注作者将自己融合到书本的细节方面的描写。

  48. B 推理判断题。根据第四段“That dog was my dog,and I was the little boy in the book. At the end of the story,my mind continued the final scene of reunion, on and on,until my own lost dog and I were,in my mind, running together.” 可知,作者与书中情节产生共鸣,把自己与书本中的主人公联系在了一起。故选 B 项。

  49. A 推理判断题。根据最后一段“And years later,she was proud that her son had read thousands of books,was awarded a PhD in literature,and authored his own books,articles,poetry and fiction.” 可以判断出作者最终成为一名成功的作家。故选 A 项。

  四、记叙文之态度题

  态度题考查学生是否了解文章作者或文中某人对某事物所持观点或态度。要求学生有在正确理解文意的基础上,对其观点或意图进行分析、识别的能力。态度题是同学们得分率较低的一个题型,在做题时往往抓不住文中的关键信息来判断作者或是其他相关人士的态度。态度题目题干中的标志性词常见的有 attitude, believe,think,agree 等词。常见题干有:

  The attitude of the author towards something is           ?

  The writer of the passage seems to think that           .

  The writer of the story wants to tell us that           .

  What’s the writer’s attitude towards...?

  The fact...is mentioned by the author to show           .

  The writer talks about...in order to           .

  【解题策略】首先,要熟悉备选项中表示态度的单词:表示积极的态度:positive,wonderful,supportive,useful,interesting,enthusiastic,admiring,encouraging,optimistic,tolerant(宽恕的)等。表示消极的态度:negative,critical,disappointing,indignant(愤怒的),pessimistic(悲观的),skeptical,suspicious等。

  表示客观中立的态度:objective(客观的),neutral(中立的),impartial(不偏不倚的,公平的),indifferent(无关紧要的,漠不关心的,中立的)等。

  其次,要知道根据题干中态度主体的不同,分为作者态度题和他人态度题。在阅读题干和返回原文时要注意态度的主体、态度的对象和态度的表达方式,即这道题是考查谁的态度、关于哪一个话题、在文章中是怎样表现的。

  总之可以分三步解题:①确定题干中态度的主体和对象;②返回原文寻找包含主体和对象的句子;③将原文中的态度词与选项进行比较,意思接近的为正确答案。

  【考例1】(2015·重庆卷A篇,保留原题号)

  At thirteen,I was diagnosed(诊断)with a kind of attention disorder. It made school difficult for me. When everyone else in the class was focusing on tasks,I could not.

  ......

  I didn’t expect anything when I handed in my paper to Mrs.Smith, so it was quite a surprise when it came back to me the next day—with an“A” on it. At the bottom of the paper were these words:“See what you can do when you keep trying?”

  38. What was Mrs.Smith’s attitude to the author at the end of the story?

  A. Angry.              B. Impatient.

  C. Sympathetic.        D. Encouraging.

  【内容概要】 本文主要讲述作者有注意力紊乱的问题,但是在老师的激励下,克服困难的故事。

  38. D 文中人物的态度推断题。根据最后一段提到的“so it was quite a surprise when it came back to me the next day—with an ‘A’ on it” 可知,当我看到作业上的 A 时,非常吃惊,由此可知 Mrs. Smith 对我的态度是鼓励的,故选 D 项。

  【考例2】(2015·全国新课标卷Ⅱ A 篇,保留原题号)

  My color television has given me nothing but a headache. I was able to buy it a little over a year ago because I had my relatives 

give me money for my birthday instead of a lot of clothes that wouldn’t fit. I let a salesclerk fool me into buying a discontinued model. I realized this a day later,when I saw newspaper advertisements for the set at seventy-five dollars less than I had paid. The set worked so beautifully when I first got it home that I would keep it on until stations signed off for the night. Fortunately,I didn’t get any channels showing all night movies or I would never have gotten to bed.

  Then I started developing a problem with the set that involved static(静电) noise. For some reason, when certain shows switched 

into a commercial,a loud noise would sound for a few seconds. Gradually,this noise began to appear during a show,and to get rid of 

it,I had to change to another channel and then change it back. Sometimes this technique would not work, and I had to pick up the set and shake it to remove the sound. I actually began to build up my arm muscles(肌肉)shaking my set.

  When neither of these methods removed the static noise,I would sit helplessly and wait for the noise to go away. At last I ended 

up hitting the set with my fist,and it stopped working altogether. My trip to the repair shop cost me $62,and the set is working well now,but I keep expecting more trouble.

  24. How does the author sound when telling the story?

  A. Curious.               B. Anxious.

  C. Cautious.              D. Humorous.

  【内容概要】 “我” 的彩电带给“我” 的只有让“我”头疼的事。从一开始就让“我” 很不痛快。因为我花的钱比广告上的多,机子还是过时的,而且质量也有问题,先是接收的频道不全,接着是噪音不断,最后只好自己花钱去修。

  24. D 推断作者对事情的态度题。根据第一段最后一句开头“Fortunately, I didn’t get any channels showing all night movies or I would never have gotten to bed.” 可知,or后面“要不然就永远睡不成觉了” 是虚拟语气,表示看不成电视反而成了好事; 第二段最后一句“I actually 

began to build up my arm muscles(肌肉) shaking my set”表示摇晃电视是因为有噪音,作者竟然还提到锻炼了胳膊的肌肉,从中可以看出作者幽默的一面。 故选D项。


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